Skip to content

MTF Surgery Research

Journal Articles About Male-to-Female Surgery


NEW! An Update on the Surgical Treatment for Transgender Patients.
Colebunders B, Brondeel S, D'Arpa S, Hoebeke P, Monstrey S. Sex Med Rev. 2016 Sep 10.
A review of the literature was performed focusing on the most recent techniques of gender reassignment surgery. Penile-scrotal skin flaps remain the technique of choice for the vaginal lining, although indications for a vaginoplasty with intestinal transfer are becoming more common.

Neovaginal Cavity Dissection in SRS. Paper authored and presented by Dr. Kamol Pansritum.
First Global Aesthetics Conference, Miami Beach, FL, USA, November 2015.

Non-grafted Vaginal Depth Augmentation for Transgender Atresia, Our Experience and Survey of Related Procedures.
Reed HM, Yanes RE, Delto JC, Omarzai Y, Imperatore K. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2015 Oct;39(5):733-44.
Given adequate development of the rectal-vesical space and preservation of that space with self-dilation, epithelialization will ensue providing sexual gratification for patient and partner (as per patient).

Male-to-Female Genital Reassignment Surgery: A Retrospective Review of Surgical Technique and Complications in 60 Patients.
Raigosa, M., Avvedimento, S., Yoon, T. S., Cruz-Gimeno, J., Rodriguez, G. and Fontdevila, J. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12: 1837–1845. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12936. Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015.
GRS can provide good functional and aesthetic outcomes in patients with male-to-female GD. However, despite a careful planning and meticulous surgical technique, secondary procedures are frequently required to improve the function and appearance of the neovagina.

Effect of sex reassignment on mental well-being and quality of life. [Article in Finnish]
Mattila A, Heinonen L, Mäntymäki A, Uusi-Mäkelä N, Algars M. Duodecim. 2015;131(4):379-81.
Gender dysphoria is effectively alleviated by sex reassignment treatments. Quality of life is improved among the majority of patients, and regrets are rare. Psychiatric symptoms at the initiation of the transition process, discrimination, negative attitudes, losses in relationships, and complications in somatic treatments may deteriorate the social integration and quality of life of the transgender people. Health-care professionals can ease the transition process by organizing support for transgender individuals according to the same principles as they do for other people.

Aesthetic and Functional Outcomes of Neovaginoplasty Using Penile Skin in Male-to-Female Transsexuals.
Buncamper ME, Honselaar JS, Bouman MB, Özer M, Kreukels BP, Mullender MG. J Sex Med. 2015 Jul;12(7):1626-34.
This study demonstrates that, despite relatively low FSFI scores, this group of transgender women is very satisfied with both the functional and aesthetic results of neovaginoplasty using penile skin inversion.

Outcome of Vaginoplasty in Male-to-Female Transgenders: A Systematic Review of Surgical Techniques.
Horbach SE, Bouman MB, Smit JM, Özer M, Buncamper ME, Mullender MG. J Sex Med. 2015 Jun;12(6):1499-512.
Many surgical methods for vaginoplasty have been opted. The penile skin inversion technique is the method of choice for most gender surgeons. However, the optimal surgical technique for vaginoplasty in transgender women has not yet been identified, as outcomes of the different techniques have never been compared. With this systematic review, we aim to give a detailed overview of the published outcomes of all currently available techniques for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transgenders.

NEW! An Overview of Neovaginal Reconstruction Options in Male to Female Transsexuals
Marta Bizic, Vladimir Kojovic, Dragana Duisin, et al. The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 638919, 8 pages, 2014.
A variety of surgical options exists for vaginal reconstruction. In this article, we review several different reconstructive approaches. Regardless of reconstruction method, the goals remain the same: creating a functional and aesthetically acceptable vagina and vulva, with a normal voiding function and satisfactory sexual function. Nowadays, the two most widespread techniques for neovaginal reconstruction are "penile inversion technique", with or without combining scrotal flaps and the use of intestinal pedicled transplants. Due to their importance, these two techniques will be discussed in more detail, compared to other reviewed techniques.

Fold-back perineoscrotal flap plus penile inversion vaginoplasty for male-to-female gender reassignment surgery in circumcised subjects
Kamyar Tavakkoli Tabassi, Bob Djavan, Jalil Hosseini, Alireza Ghoreifi, Mohadese Ershadi, Elahe Hosseini European Journal of Plastic Surgery 12/2014; 38(1):1-6.
Fold-back perineoscrotal flap plus penile inversion vaginoplasty is a suitable surgical approach for achieving adequate vaginal depth in cases of male-to-female (MTF) transsexual vaginoplasty when subjects have short penile skin flap because of circumcision.

Surgical reconstruction for male-to-female sex reassignment.
Amend B, Seibold J, Toomey P, Stenzl A, Sievert KD. Eur Urol. 2013 Jul;64(1):141-9.
We modified various vaginoplasty techniques to better position the urethral neomeatus in the proper anatomic location to minimize the chance for complications and enhance aesthetic satisfaction.

Factors associated with satisfaction or regret following male-to-female sex reassignment surgery.
Lawrence A. Arch Sex Behav. 2003 Aug;32(4):299-315.
This study examined factors associated with satisfaction or regret following sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in 232 male-to-female transsexuals operated on between 1994 and 2000 by one surgeon using a consistent technique. Participants, all of whom were at least 1-year postoperative, completed a written questionnaire concerning their experiences and attitudes. Participants reported overwhelmingly that they were happy with their SRS results and that SRS had greatly improved the quality of their lives. None reported outright regret and only a few expressed even occasional regret.

Rectosigmoid Vaginoplasty

Long-Term Follow-Up of Transgender Women After Secondary Intestinal Vaginoplasty
van der Sluis, Wouter B. et al. The Journal of Sexual Medicine , Volume 13 , Issue 4 , 702 - 710, April 2016.
In our institution, intestinal vaginoplasty before 2000 was always performed as a revision procedure after a previous vaginoplasty had failed. Although surgical corrections were frequently necessary, women reported satisfaction with the surgical outcome and with life in general.

Long-Term Outcomes of Rectosigmoid Neocolporrhaphy in Male-to-Female Gender Reassignment Surgery.
Morrison SD, Satterwhite T, Grant DW, Kirby J, Laub DR Sr, VanMaasdam. J. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Aug;136(2):386-94.
This study is one of the largest and longest reported series of rectosigmoid transfers for vaginoplasty in transsexual patients. Rectosigmoid neocolporrhaphies have many times been recommended for secondary or revision surgery when other techniques, such as penile inversion, have failed. However, the authors believe the rectosigmoid transfer is safe and efficacious, and it should be offered to male-to-female patients for primary vaginoplasty.

Rectosigmoid vaginoplasty: clinical experience and outcomes in 86 cases.
Djordjevic ML, Stanojevic DS, Bizic MR. J Sex Med. 2011 Dec;8(12):3487-94.
Rectosigmoid colon presents a good choice for vaginoplasty. According to our results, sexual function and psychosocial status of patients who underwent rectosigmoid vaginoplasty were not affected in general, and patients attained complete recovery.

Long-term results in patients after rectosigmoid vaginoplasty.
Seok Kwun Kim, Ji Hoon Park, Keun Cheol Lee, Jung Min Park, Jeong Tae Kim, Min Chan Kim. Plast Reconstr Surg 2003 Jul;112(1):143-51.
The authors concluded that rectosigmoid vaginoplasty is the best choice for transsexual patients who have previously undergone penectomy and orchiectomy and patients with unfavorable previous vaginoplasty.

Breast Augmentation

Patient satisfaction with breasts and psychosocial, sexual, and physical well-being after breast augmentation in male-to-female transsexuals.
Weigert R, Frison E, Sessiecq Q, Al Mutairi K, Casoli V. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013 Dec;132(6):1421-9.
In this prospective, noncomparative, cohort study, the current results suggest that the gains in breast satisfaction, psychosocial well-being, and sexual well-being after male-to-female transsexual patients undergo breast augmentation are statistically significant and clinically meaningful to the patient at 4 months after surgery and in the long term.

Gender Reassignment Surgery in Thailand

The development of sex reassignment surgery in Thailand: a social perspective.
Chokrungvaranont P, Selvaggi G, Jindarak S, Angspatt A, Pungrasmi P, Suwajo P, Tiewtranon P. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014 Mar 19;2014:182981.
Currently, in Thailand, there are 6 major private groups performing sex reassignment surgery, and mostly performing surgery to patients coming from abroad. Particularly, the largest of these has performed nearly 3000 vaginoplasties for male-to-female transsexuals in the last 30 years.

Feminine transformations: gender reassignment surgical tourism in Thailand.
Aizura AZ. Med Anthropol. 2010 Oct;29(4):424-43.
Gender Reassignment Surgery ThailandEvery year, hundreds of transgender people from the United States, Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia have gender reassignment surgery in Thailand. Many GRS clinics market themselves almost exclusively to non-Thai trans women. This article draws on ethnographic research with patients visiting Thailand for GRS to explore how trans women patients related their experience of medical care in Thailand to Thai cultural traditions, in particular "traditional" Thai femininity and Theravada Buddhist rituals and beliefs. Foreign patients in Thai hospital settings engage not only with medical practices but also with their perceptions of Thai cultural traditions--which inflect their feminine identifications. I draw on two patients' accounts of creating personal rituals to mark their gender reassignment surgery, placing these accounts within the context of biomedical globalization and debates about the touristic appropriation of non-"Western" cultural practices.


Last updated: 09/16/16